(二)国内外研究现状分析
尽管目前许多关于心理健康的研究正在进行,但多数研究主要关注城市生活引发临床症状的生物学机制(Galea et al., 2011; Lederbogen et al., 2011) ,但是要全面了解城市化与心理健康的关系并制订有效的干预措施,我们仍需回答一系列重要的跨学科和比较性的问题。首先,我们要厘清城市化和心理疾病的关系,必需认识到心理健康是由生物因素、心理因素和社会因素错综复杂交织所致。以社区为基础的社会学或人类学数据,不但可以为流行病学和精神病学研究设计提供借鉴,还有助于了解心理健康与城市生活方式的关系。但是我们对于三者具体是如何发挥作用的认识还非常有限。部分原因是定性的社会学与精神病学和流行病学等自然科学的研究结果未能有效的整合在一起(Fitzgerald et al., 2015);其次,自19 世纪有关城市化与心理健康关系的研究开展以来,多数研究聚焦于北美与欧洲的工业城市(Faris and Dunham,1939; Hare, 1955),明显缺乏对于城市化的全球多样性的关注。尽管亚洲和拉丁美洲部分国家已进入高速城市化进程,但有关这些地区,诸如中国、巴西、印度等国家超级都市的城市化与心理健康的研究,我们还知之甚少(e.g. Andrade et al., 2012)。因此,在高速城市化的特大城市——上海开展集社会学与传统流行病学于一体的外来人口心理健康研究项目,不但可以了解当前外来人口的心理健康状况,还可以全面了解影响外来人口心理健康的生物、心理和社会因素及其间的相互关系。
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